Photoshopping Models Essay Outline

Photoshopping, digital alteration, image manipulation, blah blah blah. Everyone talks about the fact that so many images of women are “perfected” with the help of technology, but we can’t just toss it aside as a non-issue everyone already knows about. Whether or not a person is aware of the possibility of image alterations, not everyone realizes exactly HOW MUCH these images are changed to fit some seriously un-human and unrealistic ideals that we view over and over. And not everyone understands that it isn’t just fashion magazine covers that feature drastically Photoshopped images. It’s TV. It’s video. It’s your favorite brand online. It’s everywhere.

While the vast majority of images of women are being digitally altered, so are our perceptions of normal, healthy, beautiful and attainable.

A before-and-after image from Britney Spears’ 2013 “Work B****” music video obtained by the Daily Mail, which shows the digital slim-down Britney’s body received via CGI.

One of the main strategies used to reinforce and normalize a distorted idea of “average” is media’s representation of women as extremely thin (meaning much thinner than the actual population or what is physically possible for the vast majority of women) – either by consistent use of models and actresses that are underweight or extremely thin, or by making the models and actresses fit their idea of ideal thinness and beauty through digital manipulation both on screen through computer-generated imagery (CGI — shown in the Britney Spears music video example) and in print media. Essentially, “the feminine ideal is tanned, healthy slenderness, with no unsightly bumps, bulges or cellulite, and bodily and facial perfection that results from hours of labor: exercise, makeup and hair care” (Coward, 1985) – and 30 years later, plastic surgery and Photoshop. This unrealistic form is consistently represented across almost all media forms, along with blemish-free, wrinkle-free, and even pore-free skin, thanks to the wonders of digital manipulation as an “industry standard” that is openly endorsed and defended by magazine editors and media makers the world over.

Though we hear about digital manipulation controversies all the time (check out our Photoshopping Phoniness Hall of Shame for tons of examples), media executives and producers continue to use it to an unbelievable extent and they violently defend it as a perfectly acceptable thing to do. Here are a couple interesting (and appalling) case studies from Seventeen and Self magazines to showcase this very issue:

The Feb. 2014 cover of Seventeen, featuring Troian Bellisario

The February 2014 cover of Seventeen featured “Pretty Little Liars” star Troian Bellisario, who opened up about her past problems with an eating disorder. The teen magazine decided to feature that as a teaser on the cover, right above a much larger headline for “Get an Insane Body — It’s hard, but you’ll look hot!” This juxtaposition of providing an outlet for a young actress to open up to young fans about a disorder that “ripped her life apart” next to a story promoting the thin ideals that drive many girls and women to such extremes in eating is appallingly irresponsible. Read more about our thoughts on Seventeenhere.

When superstar singer Kelly Clarkson was digitally slimmed down almost beyond recognition on Self’s September 2009 cover, people noticed. Her appearance on “Good Morning America” within just days of the cover shoot proved that her body did not look anything like the very thin one that appeared on the cover. In a shockingly ironic twist, the issue she appeared on was titled “The Body Confidence Issue” and featured an interview inside where she explained how comfortable she felt with her body:

“My happy weight changes,” Clarkson says in the September issue of SELF. “Sometimes I eat more; sometimes I play more. I’ll be different sizes all the time. When people talk about my weight, I’m like, ‘You seem to have a problem with it; I don’t. I’m fine!’ I’ve never felt uncomfortable on the red carpet or anything.”

Kelly Clarkson before and after Photoshop on Self magazine, Sept. 2009

Rather than apologizing for the seriously unethical and extreme Photoshopping snafu, Self editor Lucy Danziger tried to defend her magazine’s work to the death:

“Yes, of course we do post-production corrections on our images. Photoshopping is an industry standard,” she stated. “Kelly Clarkson exudes confidence, and is a great role model for women of all sizes and stages of their life. She works out and is strong and healthy, and our picture shows her confidence and beauty. She literally glows from within. That is the feeling we’d all want to have. We love this cover and we love Kelly Clarkson.”

Interestingly, Danziger wasn’t satisfied with that statement and felt inspired to take to her personal blog to further rationalize away the Photoshopping hack job:

“Did we alter her appearance? Only to make her look her personal best…But in the sense that Kelly is the picture of confidence, and she truly is, then I think this photo is the truest we have ever put out there on the newsstand.”

It’s hard to believe anyone’s “personal best” is a fake representation of herself. They’ll plaster “body confidence!” all over the magazine and quote Kelly talking about her own real body confidence, but they refuse to show us her actual body.

Target’s March 2014 Photoshop hack job to the JUNIOR’s swim line is unreal.

This is just one example that happened to generate enough media coverage that people were able to find out about the scary distortion of an active, 27-year-old superstar’s body in media. Unfortunately, this case study is pretty representative of thousands more that appear in magazines, on billboards, in advertisements, in stores and everywhere else you can think of every single day. At Beauty Redefined, we’ve termed this phenomenon “the normalization of abnormal.” Since we’ll see millions more images of women in media than we’ll ever see face-to-face, those images form a new standard for not just “beautiful,” but also “average” and “healthy” in our minds. When women compare themselves to a standard of beautiful, average and healthy that simply doesn’t exist in real life, the battle for healthy body image is already lost. Last year, the American Medical Association (AMA) announced they’ve adopted a policy against “false advertising:”

The AMA adopted a new policy to encourage advertising associations to work with public and private sector organizations concerned with child and adolescent health to develop guidelines for advertisements, especially those appearing in teen-oriented publications, that would discourage the altering of photographs in a manner that could promote unrealistic expectations of appropriate body image.

Dr. McAneny of the AMA states, “We must stop exposing impressionable children and teenagers to advertisements portraying models with body types only attainable with the help of photo editing software.” And yet, in the last year, Photoshopping has reached an all-time high. It is inescapable.

From lost self-esteem, lost money and time spent fixing “flaws” and a well-documented preoccupation with losing weight (NEDA, 2010), the effects of these unreal ideals hurt everyone. We know that advertising – especially for fashion or beauty products – depends on two things: 1) girls and women believing their happiness, health, and ability to be loved is dependent on their appearance, and 2) girls and women believing can achieve physical ideals by using certain products or services. Do we really understand that ALL media (with very few exceptions) depends on advertising dollars to operate? Because of that, the editorial content or programming has to uphold those same ideals or else advertisers aren’t happy. Digitally slimming women’s bodies, adding or exaggerating a “thigh gap,” and removing signs of life like pores, gray hairs, and wrinkles aren’t just casual decisions based on aesthetic preferences of a few editors — they are profit-driven decisions to create false ideals for females to seek after in hopes of someday attaining. These hopes are largely driven by desire to be found attractive, loved, appear healthy, and ultimately, happy.

Same model, differing degrees of Photoshopping on REAL printed ads, Oct. 2009. Ralph Lauren responded: “After further investigation, we have learned that we are responsible for the poor imaging and retouching that resulted in a very distorted image of a woman’s body. We have addressed the problem and going forward will take every precaution to ensure that the caliber of our artwork represents our brand appropriately.”

One telling example from the ‘90s (found in Naomi Wolf’s “The Beauty Myth”) explains how a prominent women’s magazine featured gray-haired models in a fashion spread (unheard of even today, right?). It was a success until one of their biggest advertisers, Clairol hair color company, pulled their entire campaign as a protest against the spread. The magazine, which depended on those advertising dollars, was forced to never again feature gray-haired women in a positive light. The same holds true for media today. Pay attention to what kind of companies are advertising in your favorite magazines or during your favorite TV shows. There’s a very good chance they are selling beauty products, weight loss products or other appearance-related services, which means the female characters featured positively (like in relationships or pursued by men, complimented, not the butt of jokes, etc.) will likely resemble the idealized women in the advertising.

From media outlets like that go to great lengths to make unrealistic and unattainable beauty ideals look normal and within reach, to the diet and weight loss industry raking in an estimated $61 billion on Americans’ quest for thinness in 2010 (Marketdata Enterprises, 2009), those with financial interests at stake in our beliefs about women’s bodies are thriving unlike ever before. Simultaneously, women and families are losing. Losing self-esteem. Losing time and money spent on items, services and products meant to fix our never-ending list of “flaws.” Losing real understandings of healthy, average and attainable. Sometimes even losing weight they didn’t need to lose in dangerous ways in order to measure up (or down) to Photoshopped ideals we see every day as “normal.”

Former high fashion model, Crystal Renn, battled a deadly eating disorder for many years before deciding to switch to “plus size” modeling for health purposes. Photographer and Fashion for Passion founder Nicholas Routzen said that Crystal looked thinner because the photos were “…taken from a higher angle with a wider lens,” but that“I shaped her … I did nothing that I wouldn’t do to anyone. I’m paid to make women look beautiful.”

While representations of women’s bodies across the media spectrum have shrunk dramatically in the last three decades, rates of eating disorders have skyrocketed – tripling for college-age women from the late ‘80s to 1993 and rising since then to 4% suffering with bulimia (National Eating Disorder Association, 2010). Perhaps even more startling is the 119 percent increase in the number of children under age 12 hospitalized due to an eating disorder between 1999 and 2006, the vast majority of whom were girls (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2010). Though the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2000) reports that “no exact cause of eating disorders have yet been found,” they do admit that some characteristics have been shown to influence the development of the illnesses, which include low self-esteem, fear of becoming fat and being in an environment where weight and thinness were emphasized – all of which are shown to be related to media depictions of idealized bodies, which is all but inescapable. Scholars have proposed that eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia are due, in part, to an extreme commitment to attaining the cultural body ideal as portrayed in media.

Photoshopping has taken these unreal ideals to a scary new level. Henry Farid, a Dartmouth professor of computer science who specializes in digital forensics and photo manipulation, agrees. “The more and more we use this editing, the higher and higher the bar goes. They’re creating things that are physically impossible,” he told ABC News in August 2009. “We’re seeing really radical digital plastic surgery. It’s moving towards the Barbie doll model of what a woman should look like — big breasts, tiny waist, ridiculously long legs, elongated neck. All the body fat is removed, all the wrinkles are removed, the skin is smoothed out.”

What we see in media, and what we may be internalizing as normal or beautiful, is anything but normal or beautiful. It’s fake. It’s a profit-driven idea of normal and beautiful that women will spend their lives trying to achieve and men will spend their lives trying to find. But until we all learn to recognize and reject these harmful messages about what it means to look like a woman, we all lose. And I don’t want to lose. Are you with us in taking back beauty for females everywhere?

Recognize that you are not just a body. Recognize that your body is not just an ornament or an object to be fixed and judged — it is an instrument to live and do and be. Reject messages that teach you otherwise. Cancel subscriptions, unfollow on social media, spend your money elsewhere, talk back to companies and speak up in your own circles of influence. Your reflection does not define your worth, and self-comparisons to unreal ideals get us absolutely nowhere. These ideals are unlikely to change anytime soon, so we have to change our perceptions of media and bodies with or without media.

Need more help developing body image resilience that can help you overcome your self-consciousness and be more powerful than ever before? Learn how to recognize harmful ideals, redefine beauty and health, and resist what holds you back from happiness, health, and real empowerment with the Beauty Redefined Body Image Program for girls and women 14+. It is an online, anonymous therapeutic tool that can change your life, designed by Lexie & Lindsay Kite, with PhDs in body image and media.

For the largest and most detailed collection of Photoshopping Phoniness on the Web, see our Hall of Shame Gallery!

And have you seen our new sticky notes to slap on magazines in the store aisle? They’re soooo good. Find them here. 

Looks don’t matter; beauty is only skin-deep.  We hear these sayings every day, and yet we live in a society that seems to contradict this very idea.  If looks don’t matter, why does the media use airbrushing to hide any flaws a person has?  If looks don’t matter, why are so many young women harming themselves because they’re unhappy with the way they look?  It’s because our society promotes a certain body image as being beautiful, and it’s a far cry from the average woman’s size 12.  The unrealistic standard of beauty that women are bombarded with everyday gives them a goal that is impossible to reach, and the effects are devastating.  These impossible standards need to be stopped, and society instead needs to promote a healthy body image along with the idea that women of all shapes and sizes are beautiful—not just women who are a size 2.

The media’s use of airbrushing is one of the major causes of these impossible standards of beauty.  Leah Hardy, a former Cosmopolitan editor, admitted that this is true—many of the stick-thin models in Cosmo were actually struggling with eating disorders, but were airbrushed to look less unwell (Crisell).  In an interview with the Daily Mail, Hardy stated, [the models had 22-inch waists, but they also had breasts and great skin.  They had teeny tiny ankles and thin thighs, but they still had luscious hair and full cheeks.  Thanks to retouching, our readers never saw the horrible, hungry downside of skinny.  The models’ skeletal bodies, dull, thinning hair, spots and dark circles under their eyes were magicked away by technology…  A vision of perfection that simply didn’t exist. (qtd. by Crisell)           By airbrushing these models, the media gives young girls the idea that this body image is attainable—and by trying to look like these models, these girls become just as unhealthy.

Cosmopolitan also asked their readers if they were confident with their bodies.  Of the 1000 women surveyed, over 60% revealed that they weren’t (Cosens).  Psychologists and doctors are beginning to push for a ban on airbrushed images, stating that these images are causing eating disorders and depression in girls as young as five; a survey by Girlguiding UK found that over half of girls ages eleven to sixteen are dieting in order to be thinner (Couzens).  And these airbrushed images don’t only have a negative effect on the women who see them—can you imagine being one of the women in these advertisements?  Myleene Klass spoke out about what it’s like, stating that in some photographs she’s seen, she looks absolutely nothing like herself.  “It’s always weird to see what an art director creates as a flawless version of yourself,” she admits (Crisell).

Studies have also been done concerning the influence of magazines on women, and the results make things perfectly clear: the media needs to stop promoting unrealistic body images.  Turner, Hamilton, Jacobs, Angood, and Dwyer conducted a study in 1997 in which thirty-nine college-age women were randomly assigned to two different tasks: one group of women viewed a fashion magazine prior to taking a body image survey, while the other group viewed a news magazine.  The women who were assigned the group that viewed the fashion magazine stated that they wanted to lose more weight and viewed themselves more negatively than the women who read the news magazine.  A study performed by Marian Morry and Sandra Staska in 2001 found that “media exposure to the ‘ideal’ form is being internalized” (Chojnacki).  However, this ideal form, quite simply, doesn’t exist—“print and electronic media images blur the boundaries between a fictionalized ideal and reality.  Therefore, these ‘ideal’ images that are represented in the mass media are not only unreal, but also very misleading” (Thompson and Heinberg, qtd. in “Dissatisfaction”).

Some companies have already begun to take the necessary steps to put an end to these impossible standards.  In 2004, Dove started their Campaign for Real Beauty, in which they feature women of all shapes and sizes in their advertisements and don’t retouch the images (Cosens).  Dove also includes self-esteem toolkits and resources on their website as part of their mission: “to help develop girls’ self-esteem from a young age, so they have the confidence to feel happy in themselves and reach their full potential” (“Our Mission”).  H&M has also recently joined in the effort to promote a healthier (and more realistic) body image by using bigger mannequins.  While most mannequins are sizes 4 to 6, these mannequins are a size 12—the size of the average American woman (“Photo of plus size mannequins”).  This seems like another step in the right direction; however, H&M has met worldwide debate as many feel that these mannequins encourage obesity and unhealthy lifestyles.  One man commented on the article about the new mannequins saying, “Cover those fat women up. This is sick.”  Another stated that this is just an attempt to lower men’s expectations of an ideal mate and is encouraging “mediocrity, laziness, and self-indulgence.”  These comments are exactly what’s wrong with today’s society, and are why things need to change.

While many young girls are aware that the photographs they see of celebrities have been retouched, they don’t realize the women they see in movies, music videos, and TV shows have also been airbrushed (Crisell).  Not only that, but as former actress and singer Demi Lovato pointed out, the stars of many TV shows have also been getting considerably thinner: “Is it just me, or are the actresses getting THINNER and THINNER… I miss the days of That’s So Raven and Lizzie McGuire,” Lovato tweeted, referencing actresses Raven Symone and Hilary Duff (Piazza).  Lovato isn’t the only one to hold this view, either.  Psychotherapist Dr. Jenn Berman stated that “networks and shows that cater to children need to be more mindful in both casting and writing to ensure that children of all shapes and sizes are represented”; similarly, Dr. Jeffrey Gardere stated that “constantly portraying these so-called perfect bodies in the media… can promote unhealthy eating, diet, and food disorder practices that can cause injury and sometimes death, not to mention the psychological damage that can severely impact self image and self-esteem” (Piazza).

Things haven’t always been this way; in the 1950s, Marilyn Monroe epitomized the standard of beauty at size 14.  However, the ideal body size for women keeps going down, and with it, women’s self-esteem: the average model today is 5’11” and weighs in at 117 pounds, whereas the average woman is 5’4” and weighs 140 (“Dissatisfaction”).  Actresses are getting thinner; models are getting thinner; and as if these models and actresses aren’t thin enough already, the media proceeds to airbrush them.  What was wrong with Marilyn Monroe’s size 14?  Absolutely nothing, and since this was the image that the media promoted, this look was accepted.  Why can’t we go back to promoting curves instead of skin and bones—or better yet, why can’t we promote the idea that women of all shapes and sizes are equally beautiful?  We can, and the place to start is with the media.

The sad thing is that these unrealistic body images don’t just exist in the media; they surround us, although they’ve become so entrenched in our society that we don’t even notice.  Take the Barbie doll—many young girls grow up playing with Barbies, but have you ever stopped to think about the body image that Barbie promotes?  If Barbie was real, “her body fat percentage would be so low that she would not be able to menstruate.  Her measurements would be 38-18-34.”  Comparatively, the average woman’s measurements are approximately 41-34-43—only about one in 100,000 women even come close to matching Barbie’s body image.  These unrealistic body images are introduced at such a young age that it’s no surprise young girls struggle with their weight; about 90% of all cases of eating disorders are diagnosed before the age of 20, and the majority of those diagnosed are young women (“Barbie”).

College women also face these ideas of the ideal body image every day, and from their own peers.  Many fraternities judge women solely on appearance when it comes to deciding whom to let into parties, as they only want “attractive” women; we also see examples of this in movies such as Knocked Up, where there’s a long line of women waiting to get into a club… but if you look a certain way, you can skip the line.  In this way, women feel a lot more pressure to look a certain way than men, as much of this pressure comes from the men—and this peer pressure actually “influence[s] women to compare themselves to the models in fashion magazines and on television,” leading to further body dissatisfaction.  Faced by all this pressure to look a certain way, is it any wonder that 88% of women want to lose weight (Sheldon)?

We see these unrealistic body images in the media; we grow up surrounded by them without even noticing it, because they’ve “seeped into American culture” (Kantor).  As a result, this idea of the ideal body image has become internalized, along with negativity toward fat.  Dr. Michael Levine, co-author of The Prevention of Eating Problems and Eating Disorders: Theory, Research, and Practice, proved this point by proposing a hypothetical scenario: suppose someone comes up to you and tells you that you’re looking really good because you’ve put on some fat.  While this statement is intended to be a compliment—telling someone that they’re looking really good—because the word “fat” is included, it’s perceived negatively (Kantor).  But if so much negativity toward fat exists, and so many young women are struggling with eating disorders, why are obesity rates skyrocketing?

Our nation’s obesity epidemic is actually related to these unrealistic body images—the same unrealistic body images that are causing eating disorders.  “American society is not suffering from two distinct health problems,” Kantor of the Harvard Political Review writes, “It is experiencing two symptoms of one serious disorder.” Dr. Allison Field, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, noted that, “as obesity has become more and prevalent, the ideal standard of beauty has not changed, resulting in a growing gap between the average person and his or her ideal body image,” a contrast which fuels the obesity-eating disorder paradox.  As our society emphasizes this negativity toward fat and obesity, while holding up these stick-thin, airbrushed models as the ideal body image, it’s actually causing depression, dieting behaviors, excessive weight concerns, and loss of control eating—many of the things that lead to both obesity and eating disorders, according to Dr. Marian Tanofsky-Kraff of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.  Tanofsky-Kraff also makes sure to point out that “dieting frequently backfires and can lead to more weight gain,” although that’s what many young women feel they have to do in order to meet these unrealistic standards (Kantor).

These unrealistic body images are a huge problem in today’s society, as their effects are detrimental—but there is a solution.  The media can stop airbrushing; more companies can follow in Dove’s footsteps and feature women of all shapes and sizes in their advertisements.  Quite simply, “the environment in which [we] live needs to change in order to foster healthy behaviors and prevent a situation that further stigmatizes overweight persons” (Sheldon).  Instead of focusing on weight and dieting in order to meet an unrealistic standard of beauty, we can promote healthy lifestyles for the sake of being healthy—thus putting a stop the obesity-eating disorder paradox and allowing women to feel good about themselves again.  And once the media starts promoting the idea that all women are beautiful, women can stop feeling pressured to look a certain way.  It’s time to prove that these sayings aren’t just sayings: looks really don’t matter, and beauty really is only skin-deep.

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