Cbd Coursework

In this section you will be tackling the question “Where was the CBD in St Ives in the 1970s?”. In today’s session we have talked through how best to tackle this as well as analysing the GOAD map together. It is however important that you don’t rely just on what the GOAD map shows. In order to get to the highest marks it is important that you recognise that secondary sources may have an element of bias and it is important to try and cross-correlate from a number of sources before drawing a final conclusion.

The following is a brief guide / checklist of how to complete this section:

1. Give a brief introduction to this section (i.e. what are you intending / trying to do in this section and how)

2. Analyse the GOADmap (make use of the analysis grid that we completed in lessons, a blank is available here to help you structure your thoughts if you were absent). Using your ideas from your sheet – take each street in turn and talk through its charactersitics in the 1970s – i.e. main types of land-use etc. – discuss them in relation to your expectations of a CBD. Also identify any other key features such as bus stops etc. which may be identifed on the map. It is worth ending this by acknowledging what the map can’t show

3. Write up supporting background information – you should be doing some background research into what St Ives was like in the 1970s using other secondary sources such as St Ives Town Plans, 1970s St Ives, other websites, books, photographs (or even interviews with relatives / friends – if you do this – keep a clear record of your interview so it can be evidenced for initiative marks). (you may be able to locate old photographs through the Resources Centre, St Ives Library or even the Norris Museum).

4. Finally – drawing together what you have found from the GOAD map and the other resources – draw your final conclusion as to where you think the CBD was in 1970.


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Urban Settlements

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Urban land use models

Burgess - Concentric Model

Burgess concluded that city land-use could be identified as a series of concentric rings around the CBD. The CBD will contain all the major shops and offices and be a centre of entertainment. Surrounding this CBD will be the oldest housing, which is in a state of deterioration. Industry will also feature in this area. This is the area often referred to as the inner city or 'zone of transition'. Then, we get three rings of housing. The first will be high density, poor quality that traditionally houses the workers for the factories. Next, is slightly lower density, middle class housing. These will be semi-detached with gardens. Finally, there is a ring of high class housing for those who can afford to commute.

Hoyt Urban Model

 Hoyt suggested that the city grew in a series of sectors or 'wedges'. These would grow along traditional communication routes. The land-use within a sector would remain the same as like attracts like. For example, a 'high class' sector would remain high class as it would be the most desirable area to live, so only the wealthiest could afford it. An industrial sector would remain industrial as the zone would have a common advantage - perhaps a railway line or river.
Note how the low quality housing is next to the industrial zone, middle class next to low class and high class as far as possible from industry and low class.

Urban Model for a developing country

The CBD is similar to that in the developed world and is an area of high-rise offices and shops. However, the similarities stop here. The CBD is surrounded by high-class apartments and older middle class housing, which has been built during colonial times.
You should not forget that there is great wealth in the cities of the developing world and that one of the features of the developing world cities is the great contrast in living standards.

In a ring around the high class housing you find well established 'shanty towns'. These will be the oldest shanty towns in the city and are located here so that residents could find work in the CBD or in the homes of the higher-class residents.
These are not like the shanty towns in the outer circle as they have been steadily improved by the residents. Many will have electricity, water supplies, even schools and clinics. The buildings will have been improved so that corrugated iron is replaced with brick and concrete. This could have been via a redevelopment scheme as outlined in the problems and solutions scheme. Many will now be officially recognised settlements.

This zone is referred to as 'periferia' or periphery.
Surrounding this (and infilling any gaps) will be the shanty towns that would be resident to the most recent migrants and would typically have the poorest standards of living as outlined in the urban problems section.
In addition, there are sectors of industrial use (as factories locate along main roads especially those that lead directly to a port) and residential as the high classes choose to leave the polluted and over-crowded inner city.
Follow the following link and discuss which model you think this matches and why
Print out:
​Discuss the above model. How would this impact what the city looks like?

Urban Problems

​As a group discuss the possible solutions and add these to your coggle



"Can cities be sustainable? Discuss"
Explore Manchester. Click on the image to the right to play the game.
Complete the Hoyt land use worksheet by using the YouTube below and discussing the zones in class

Hoyt Land Use Worksheet
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​Complete the City zone worksheet

Describe the city zones (worksheet)
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Using Coggle and after watching the YouTube create a spider diagram of the problems that cities can experience. Try to divide them into areas:

Case Study: 
  • Use maps to locate your areas of study. (London Olympic park and Canary Warf)
  • What did these areas used to be?
  • How is London a sprawling Urban area?
  • Why were they selected for redevelopment?
  • How were they redeveloped?
  • What are they like now?
  • What are some of the issues involved 

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