Dissertation Layout Examples

How do you start when you have to write a dissertation or a thesis? You can save yourself some headaches by first typing each element of the structure of your dissertation in Microsoft Word. This simple exercise provides an overview of everything that you still have to do, and it functions as an outline that you can later fill in with the parts of your dissertation.

Structure of a dissertation

Each educational program places slightly different demands on the structure of a dissertation. That’s why it is always a good idea to investigate the requirements of your program. However, the structures of all theses have many common elements.

Title page

The title page is the front page and therefore the eye catcher of your dissertation. The title page contains the title (and subtitle) and perhaps a nice illustration that fits with the study. You can also place your name, educational program and student administration number here.

Information page

The information page gives more information than what can be found on the title page. Here you note again the title (and subtitle), information about your supervisors, information about yourself (name, student administration number and email address) and information about your educational program. Finally, end this page with the date on which the dissertation is submitted.

Preface

The preface is a personal note within your dissertation. Here you can give the reader information about the personal background of your dissertation.

In addition, the preface is also used to thank everyone who helped with the production of your dissertation.

Acknowledgements

As with the preface, the acknowledgements section allows space to thank everyone who helped you in writing your dissertation. In this aspect, the acknowledgement section seems much like the preface, but the difference is that there is no mention of any other information in the acknowledgements section, such as the personal background of your dissertation.

We advise you to use only a preface and to add your words of thanks to it. Only when you want to use a lot of space to thank many people can an acknowledgements section come in handy.

Abstract (Summary)

One of the functions of an abstract is to help the reader decide whether the content of your dissertation is interesting enough to read in more detail. In the summary, you answer four questions:

  1. What is the problem?
  2. What was done?
  3. What was discovered?
  4. What do the findings mean?

Table of Contents

In the table of contents, list all of your chapters and their page numbers. The table of contents ensures that the reader of your dissertation has an overview and can see on which page a certain chapter begins, navigating the document with more ease. Put all parts of your dissertation in the table of contents, including the appendices. You can easily generate a table of contents automatically in Word.

List of Figures and Tables

All tables and figures that you use in your dissertation are itemized in the list of figures and tables. When you use the ‘insert Caption…’ feature in Word, you can automatically generate this list.

List of Abbreviations

In the list of abbreviations, include all abbreviations of key terms used in your dissertation. By alphabetizing this list, the reader can easily look up an abbreviation. It is a matter of personal preference as to whether the list of abbreviations is placed at the beginning or end of your dissertation, after the list of references.

Glossary

The glossary is a list of all terms used in your dissertation that require a short explanation. In the glossary, you list the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a brief description or definition.

Introduction

In the introduction, you introduce the topic and the problem statement, and you describe how your dissertation is constructed. A strong and clear introduction ensures that you win over the reader so that he or she will more eagerly read the rest of your dissertation. You can even use our tips for writing an overview of your dissertation to make sure readers go through your text more easily.

Theoretical framework / Literature review

In the theoretical framework chapter, try to answer all descriptive research questions (the questions that help you define your variables). You can almost always answer these descriptive research questions by conducting a literature study. Use a separate section for each research question.

If you are conducting empirical research and are drafting hypotheses or have already done so, you can use the literature to reject or support a hypothesis. You can also use the literature review to formulate a hypothesis. Later, while conducting qualitative or quantitative research, you will test the hypothesis.

Research design

In this section, you describe the study design, which is part of the research plan. In the study or research design, you explain where, when, how and with whom you are going to do the research. The question of ‘how’ will determine your research method. Are you going to conduct research using a survey or perhaps with an experiment? Another term for the ‘how’ question is ‘research methodology’.

Research results

In the research chapter, you actually carry out the research design that you described in the previous chapter. Thus, here you apply the specified methods. You describe how the research went and you analyze the results.

Conclusion and discussion

In the conclusion, you finally provide an answer corresponding to your problem statement. Often, the results are open to multiple interpretations. That’s why this chapter is called conclusion and discussion.

In the discussion section, you provide the various possible interpretations and views, and you give suggestions for follow-up research.

Recommendations / Advisory plan

The recommendations for follow-up research are always described in the dissertation discussion section. However, many students who are doing a final internship at a company must also write an advisory plan.

In this advisory plan, they make recommendations to the company in response to the conclusions of their study.

Afterword / Evaluation / Reflection

As with the preface, the afterword is often used to thank people. Thus, when you have already written a preface, an afterword is often unnecessary. Another function of the afterword is reflection. That is why the afterword is also referred to as evaluation or reflection.

When you have written the dissertation with another person, you can use the afterword to indicate how the collaboration went and what you have learned. Many students are also required to write a reflection report. The reflection report is often written separately and not added to the dissertation.

Reference list

You list all sources that you have used in the reference list. Your educational program will often specify which style you must use for the acknowledgement of sources. The most prevalent style is APA style.

We have created a free APA Generator for APA style, so that you can easily generate all your sources. When you are following an educational program that uses a different style (e.g. Law), you will have to use appropriate style for that program (e.g. OSCOLA).

Appendices

Your dissertation itself contains only core issues. Many documents that you have used but which do not actually need to be in your dissertation are added as appendices. If documents contribute to your research, then you must include them in the appendix so that others can check how your research has been conducted and on what it is based.

Common appendix items are interview (questions), tables and analyses.

The structure described above is very handy while writing your dissertation, but you may deviate from this format. How other students have structured their theses can be seen in the dissertation examples.

For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here

This Study Guide addresses the task of writing a dissertation. It aims to help you to feel confident in the construction of this extended piece of writing, and to support you in its successful completion.

You may also find the following Study Guides helpful:

Introduction

Sometimes writing is seen as an activity that happens after everything else:

“The research is going well, so the writing should be straightforward - I can leave it until later”.

“I know I’m not good at writing so I keep putting it off”.

“I know I’m good at writing so I can leave it to later”.

“I want to get everything sorted out in my mind before I start writing or I’ll just end up wasting my time re-writing”.

These four very different perspectives lead to the same potential problems:

  • regarding re-drafting as a failure or a waste of time;

  • ignoring the further learning and clarification of argument that usually occurs during the writing and re-writing process; and

  • leaving too little time for effective editing and final proofing.

The process of having to describe your study in detail, in a logical sequence of written words, will inevitably highlight where more thought is needed, and it may lead to new insight into connections, implications, rationale, relevance, and may lead to new ideas for further research.

Barras (1993:136) suggests that you ‘think of your report as part of your investigation, not as a duty to be undertaken when your work is otherwise complete’, and this Study Guide suggests that: writing is an integral part of the research process.

Getting on with the writing

The good news is that you have already started writing if you have written any of the following in relation to this study:

  • a research proposal;

  • a literature review;

  • a report of any pilot studies that you undertook;

  • an abstract for a conference;

  • reports for your supervisors;

  • a learning journal where you keep ideas as they occur to you; or

  • notes for a presentation you have given.

In each case the object of the writing was to communicate to yourself, your supervisors, or to others, something about your work. In writing your dissertation you will draw on some of this earlier writing to produce a longer and more comprehensive account.

Check out what is required

Before embarking on any substantial writing for your dissertation you will need to check the exact requirements regarding:

  • the word limit: maximum and minimum; and whether or not this includes words within tables, the abstract, the reference list, and the appendices;

  • which chapters are expected to be included, in which order, and what kind of material is expected in each;

  • the kind of content appropriate to place in the appendices rather than in the main text; and

  • the marking scheme or guidance.

The structure

There are some conventions that guide the structuring of dissertations in different disciplines. You should check departmental and course regulations.

Below are two structures that are commonly used.

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents page(s)
  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods or Literature review
  • Results or Sources and methods
  • Discussion or Findings
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendices

Each section or chapter has its own particular function

Title page

The title itself is an important opportunity to tell the potential reader what your research is about. You will need it to be succinct, specific, descriptive, and representative of the research you have done. There is likely to be a required format for the title page in your discipline, so you need to check what that is.

Abstract

This may be one of the shortest sections of your thesis or dissertation, but it is worthwhile taking great care to write it well. Essentially, the Abstract is a succinct summary of the research. It should be able to stand alone in representing why and how you did what you did, and what the results and implications are. It is often only one page long, and there may be a word limit to adhere to. The Abstract is an important element of the thesis, and will become a document in its own right if the thesis is registered within any database. The examiners will therefore assess your Abstract both as part of your thesis, and as a potentially independent document.

It can be best to write the Abstract last, once you are sure what exactly you are summarising. Alternatively it can be useful to write the abstract earlier on, as an aid to identifying the crucial main thread of your research, its purpose, and its findings, which could then guide the structure of the dissertation.

Attending to the very restrictive word / space limit, while at the same including all the relevant material is quite a challenge. It might be useful to look at how others have managed. It is certainly an academic exercise, but perhaps not too different from the concise explanations of your research you may have had to give to relatives and neighbours over the last few years, in terms of its brevity, accessibility, and comprehensiveness.

Acknowledgements

This is your opportunity to mention individuals who have been particularly helpful. Reading the acknowledgements in other dissertations in your field will give you an idea of the ways in which different kinds of help have been appreciated and mentioned.

Contents, and figure and table lists

The contents pages will show up the structure of the dissertation. Any  imbalance in space devoted to different sections of content will become apparent. This is a useful check on whether amalgamation of sections, or creation of further sections or sub-sections is needed.

Introduction

Although this is the first piece of writing the reader comes to, it is often best to leave its preparation to last as, until then, you will not be absolutely sure what you are introducing. The introduction has two main roles:

  • to expand the material summarised in the abstract, and

  • to signpost the content of the rest of the dissertation.

The literature review, or context of the study

The purpose of this chapter is to show that you are aware of where your own piece of research fits into the overall context of research in your field. To do this you need to:

  • describe the current state of research in your defined area;

  • consider whether there are any closely related areas that you also need to refer to;

  • identify a gap where you argue that further research is needed; and

  • explain how you plan to attend to that particular research gap.

This can lead logically into a clear statement of the research question(s) or problem(s) you will be addressing.

In addition to the research context, there may be other relevant contexts to present for example:

  • theoretical context;

  • methodological context;

  • practice context; and

  • political context.

It can be difficult to identify the best order for sections in this chapter because the rationale for your choice of specific research question can be complicated, and there may be several inter-linked reasons why the research is needed. It is worth taking time to develop a logical structure as this will help to convince examiners of the relevance of your research, and that you understand its relevance. It will also provide you with a framework to refer back to in your discussion chapter, when you reflect on the extent to which your research has achieved what it set out to do.

Chapter(s) describing methods, sources, material etc

In these chapters a straightforward description is required of how you conducted the research. If you used particular equipment, processes, or materials, you will need to be clear and precise in how you describe them.  You must give enough detail for another researcher to replicate your study.

Results / Findings

You will need to check which style of reporting is preferred in your field. For example a scientific dissertation would probably have very clear separation between the results and the discussion of those results; whereas a social science dissertation might have an overall chapter called Findings, bringing the results and their discussion together.

Decisions about style of presentation may need to be made about, for example:

  • whether you want to begin with an initial overview of the results, followed by the detail, or whether you move immediately into the detail of the results;

  • in which order you will be presenting the detailed results; and

  • what balance, in terms of word space, you want to achieve across the spread of results that you have.

Discussion

This is where you review your own research in relation to the wider context in which it is located. You can refer back to the rationale that you gave for your research in the literature review, and discuss what your own research has added in this context. It is important to show that you appreciate the limitations of your research, and how these may affect the validity or usefulness of your findings. Given the acknowledged limitations, you can report on the implications of your findings for theory, research, and practice.

Conclusions

This chapter tends to be much shorter than the Discussion. It is not a mere ‘summary’ of your research, but needs to be ‘conclusions’ as to the main points that have emerged and what they mean for your field.

References

This section needs to be highly structured, and needs to include all of your references in the required referencing style. As you edit and rewrite your dissertation you will probably gain and lose references that you had in earlier versions. It is important therefore to check that all the references in your reference list are actually referenced within the text; and that all the references that appear in the text appear also in the reference list.

Appendices

You need to check whether or not the appendices count within the word limit for your dissertation. Items that can usefully go in the appendices are those that a reader would want to see, but which would take up too much space and disrupt the flow if placed within the main text.  Again, make sure you reference the Appendices within the main text where necessary.

Designing your detailed structure

If your dissertation is well-structured, easy to follow, logical, and coherent, your examiners will probably enjoy reading it, and will be able to listen to your argument without the distraction of trying to make all the links themselves.

The only way to achieve a consistent argument throughout a piece of writing is by creating some kind of plan or map of what you want to say. It can be useful to think of the research question or topic going like a strong thread throughout the dissertation: linking all the elements of the study, and giving coherence to its reporting.

Moving from doing the research to writing a comprehensive account of it is not necessarily easy. You may feel that you know everything in your head but can’t see how you can put it into words in the most useful order. It can be helpful to break the task down into smaller, more easily accomplished elements. The process of producing your writing plan could go as follows.

  1. You could start by making a comprehensive and unstructured list of all the elements and ideas that you need to include, ranging from

  2. chapter headings to notes about analysis, and from ideas for graphical representation to ideas for further research. Alternatively you could choose to start at stage 2.

  3. List the main chapter headings in the order in which they will appear.

  4. Under each chapter heading, list a series of important sub-headings. It may be that, for example, a literature review chapter needs to be split into a review of several different segments of literature. In this case each segment can have its own sub-heading, with a synthesis that brings the findings together at the end of the chapter.

  5. Under each sub-heading, list the main content that needs to be included, creating sub-sub-headings if needed. If you began by making a long and unstructured list of content, you can now feed that into the developing structure by inserting it as bullet points under the relevant headings. You need to ensure that all the content you want to include has been allocated a place.

  6. As you go, you can slot in ideas, references, quotes, clarifications, and conclusions as they occur to you, to make sure they are not forgotten.

  7. Check that there is an appropriate balance between and within  sections, and that the structure facilitates the logical and coherent description of the research study you have undertaken.

  8. Take feedback from others at this stage, before you begin to fill in the detail.

Filling in the detail

It can be a good idea to put the word limit to the back of your mind at this point, and concentrate on getting everything recorded in a document. You can always edit upwards or downwards later as necessary.

Writing as you go along

It is likely, and advisable, that you will not wait until the end of your research before starting to write it up. You may be required to produce one or more chapters for assessment part way through your research. The process described above can be used for any individual chapter you are working on. It is important to be prepared to critique and revise your own work several times. Even the early chapters submitted for assessment, and passing that assessment, may need to be revised later on. This is not a failure, but a positive sign of increased experience and skill.

Developing an argument

An important aspect running through your dissertation will be your argument for:

  • why this specific topic is worth researching;

  • why this is a good way to research it;

  • why this method of analysis is appropriate; and

  • why your interpretations and conclusions are reasonable.

You will refer to the work of others as you make your argument. This may involve critiquing the work of established leaders in the field. While it is important to be respectful in the way that you discuss others’ ideas and research, you are expected to engage directly, and even openly disagree with existing writing.

In Taylor’s (1989) book on writing in the arts and social sciences, he suggests that the following different approaches offer a range of academically legitimate ways to engage with published work.

  • Agree with, accede to, defend, or confirm a particular point of view.

  • Propose a new point of view.

  • Concede that an existing point of view has certain merits but that it needs to be qualified in certain important respects.

  • Reformulate an existing point of view or statement of it, such that the new version makes a better explanation.

  • Dismiss a point of view or another person’s work on account of its inadequacy, irrelevance, incoherence or by recourse to other appropriate criteria.

  • Reject, rebut or refute another’s argument on various reasoned grounds.

  • Reconcile two positions that may seem at variance by appeal to some ‘higher’ or ‘deeper’ principal.

  • Develop an existing point of view, perhaps by utilising it on larger or more complex datasets, or apply a theory to a new context

(Adapted from Taylor 1989:67)

It is important that you are assertive about what you are arguing, but it is unlikely that, in a dissertation project, you will be able to be definitive in closing an established academic debate. You should be open about where the gaps are in your research, and cautious about over-stating what you have found.  Aim to be modest but realistic in relating your own research to the broader context.

Improving the structure and content

Once you have the dissertation in draft form it becomes easier to see where you can improve it. To make it easier to read you can use clear signposting at the beginning of chapters, and write links between sections to show how they relate to each other. Another technique to improve academic writing style is to ensure that each individual paragraph justifies its inclusion. More ideas will be presented in the Study Guide The art of editing.

You may choose to review your draft from the standpoint of a dissertation examiner, which might involve preparing a list of questions that you want to see answered, then reading through your dissertation scribbling comments, suggestions, criticisms, and ideas in the margin. If you have a marking guide then apply it to your dissertation and see if there are aspects that you can improve.

While you do this, be aware of whether you need to increase the number of words, or decrease it to reach your target. As you read you can then cross through material that appears unnecessary, and mark points that could be expanded. This will then form the basis for your next, improved, draft.

When to stop

Just as it can be difficult to begin writing, it can also be difficult to know when to stop. You may begin to feel that your dissertation will never be good enough, and that you need to revise it again and again. It may be helpful to divert your attention for a while to the finishing off activities you need to attend to:

  • writing the abstract and the introduction;

  • checking the reference list;

  • finalising the appendices; and

  • checking your contents page.

Coming back afresh to look critically at the main text may then enable you to complete it to your satisfaction. Remember the dissertation needs to demonstrate your ability to undertake and report research rather than to answer every question on a topic.

It is important to allow yourself enough time for the final checking and proof reading of the finished document.

Summary

  • Devote time to planning the structure of the dissertation.

  • Plan a structure that will enable you to present your argument effectively.

  • Fill in the detail, concentrating on getting everything recorded rather than sticking to the word limit at this stage.

  • Regard writing as part of the research process, not an after-thought.

  • Expect to edit and re-edit your material several times as it moves towards its final form.

  • Leave time to check and proofread thoroughly.

References

Barrass R. (1979) Scientists must write. A guide to better writing for scientists, engineers and students. London:Chapman and Hall.

Taylor G. (1989) The Student’s Writing Guide for the Arts and Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

0 thoughts on “Dissertation Layout Examples

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *