Pharmacy Placement Reflective Essay Rubric

1. Tsingos C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Smith L. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ.2014;78(1) Article 18. [PMC free article][PubMed]

2. Bulman C, Lathlean J, Gobbi M. The concept of reflection in nursing: qualitative findings on student and teacher perspectives. Nurse Educ Today.2012;32(5):e8–e13.[PubMed]

3. Constantinou M, Kuys SS. Physiotherapy students find guided journals useful to develop reflective thinking and practice during their first clinical placement: a qualitative study. Physiother (United Kingdom).2013;99(1):49–55.[PubMed]

4. Wright L, Lundy M. Blogging as a tool to promote reflection among dietetic and physical therapy students during a multidisciplinary international service-learning experience. J Allied Health.2012;41(3):e73–e8.[PubMed]

5. Wetmore AOK, Boyd LD, Bowen DM, Pattillo RE. Reflective blogs in clinical education to promote critical thinking in dental hygiene students. J Dent Educ.2010;74(12):1337–1350.[PubMed]

6. Poirier TI, Santanello CR, Gupchup GV. A student orientation program to build a community of learners. Am J Pharm Educ.2007;71(1) Article 13. [PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Donaghy M, Morss K. An evaluation of a framework for facilitating and assessing physiotherapy students' reflection on practice. Physiother Theory Pract.2007;23(2):83–94.[PubMed]

8. Droege M. The role of reflective practice in pharmacy. Education for Health.2003;16(1):68–74.[PubMed]

9. Lonie JM. Learning through self-reflection: understanding communication barriers faced by a cross-cultural cohort of pharmacy students. Curr Pharm Teach Learn.2010;2(1):12–9.

10. Wallman A, Lindblad AK, Hall S, Lundmark A, Ring L. A categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy students' levels of reflection during internships. Am J Pharm Educ.2008;72(1) Article 05. [PMC free article][PubMed]

11. Fenwick T. Making to measure? Reconsidering assessment in professional continuing education. Stud Contin Educ.2009;31(3):229–244.

12. Tsingos C. Reflective practice: learning from experience. J Pharm Pract Res.2013;43(3):249–250.

13. Kennedy P. Learning cultures and learning styles: myth-understandings about adult (Hong Kong) Chinese learners. International Journal of Lifelong Education.2002;21(5):430–445.

14. Khan KS, Kunz R, Kleijnen J, Antes G. Five steps to conducting a systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.2003;96(3):118–121.[PMC free article][PubMed]

15. Plaza CM, Draugalis JR, Slack MK, Skrepnek GH, Sauer KA. Use of reflective portfolios in health sciences education. Am J Pharm Educ.2007;71(2) Article 34. [PMC free article][PubMed]

16. Wallman A, Lindblad ÅK Gustavsson M, Ring L. Factors associated with reflection among students after an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Am J Pharm Educ.2009;73(6) Article 107. [PMC free article][PubMed]

17. Briceland LL, Hamilton RA. Electronic reflective student portfolios to demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes during advanced pharmacy practice experiences. Am J Pharm Educ.2010;74(5) Article 79. [PMC free article][PubMed]

18. Gavaza P, Smith B, Adkins D. Effect of an introductory pharmacy practice experience geriatric rotation on pharmacy students' learning outcomes: a qualitative study. Consult Pharm.2012;27(12):849–856.[PubMed]

19. Shah B, Rahim H, Yin H. Student pharmacists as researchers of consumer perspectives of the role of pharmacists. Currents Pharm Teach Learn.2012;4(3):188–196.

20. McKauge L, Stupans I, Owen SM, Ryan G, Woulfe J. Building critical reflection skills for lifelong learning in the emergent landscape of a national registration and accreditation scheme. J Pharm Pract.2011;24(2):235–240.[PubMed]

21. Black PE, Plowright D. Exploring pharmacists' views about the contribution that reflective learning can make to the development of professional practice. Int J Pharm Pract.2007;15(2):149–155.

22. Kostrzewski AJ, Dhillon S, Goodsman D, Taylor KMG. The impact of portfolios on health professionals' practice: a literature review. Int J pharm Pract.2008;16(6):339–345.

23. Dawn S, Smith MJ, Peterson S, et al. Electronic portfolios: questions, implementation, and lessons learned in a doctor of pharmacy program. Curr Pharm Teach Learn.2011;3(3):164–170.

24. Hanya M, Yonei H, Kurono S, Kamei H. Development of reflective thinking in pharmacy students to improve their communication with patients through a process of role-playing, video reviews, and transcript creation. Curr Pharm Teach Learn.2014;6:122–129.

25. Bourner T. Assessing reflective learning. Educ Train.2003;45(5):267–72.

26. Plack MM, Driscoll M, Blissett S, McKenna R, Plack TP. A method for assessing reflective journal writing. J Allied Health.2005;34(4):199–208.[PubMed]

27. Moon J. A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: Theory and Practice. Routledge; Abingdon: 2004.

28. Kinsella EA. Professional knowledge and the epistemology of reflective practice. Nurs Philos.2010;11(1):3–14.[PubMed]

29. Ramsden P. Learning to Teach in Higher Education. 2nd ed. Abingdon, Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer; 2003.

30. Boud D. Assessment and the promotion of academic values. Stud High Educ.1990;15(1):101–111.

31. Boud D. Sustainable assessment: rethinking assessment for the learning society. Stud Contin Educ.2000;22(2):151–167.

32. Brockbank A, McGill I. Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education. 2nd ed. Berkshire, England: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press; 2007.

33. Biggs J, Tang C. Teaching for Quality Learning at University. 4th ed. Berkshire, England: Open University Press; 2011.

34. Tlhoaele M, Hofman A, Winnips K, Beetsma Y. The impact of interactive engagement methods on students' academic achievement. HERDSA: High Educ Res Dev.2014;33(5):1020–1034.

35. Dewey J. How We Think: London; Heath, 1910 Chapter 1 p1–13; 1859-1952.

36. Dewey J. How We Think: A Restatement of The Relation of Reflective Thinking to The Educative Process. Boston MA: DC Health; 1933.

37. Schon D. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action. Gower House, England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd; 1995.

38. Boud D, Keogh R, Walker D. Promoting Reflection in Learning: A Model. Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London, Kogan Page; New York, Nicols Pub; 1985:18–40.

39. Mezirow J. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1991.

40. Mezirow J. Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood: How Critical Reflection Triggers Learning. In: Knox AB, ed. Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood. San Francisco, California 94104: Jossey-Bass Inc. Publishers; 1990:p 1–20.

41. Chirema KD. The use of reflective journals in the promotion of reflection and learning in post-registration nursing students. Nurse Educ Today.2007;27(3):192–202.[PubMed]

42. Wong F, Kember D, Chung L, Yan L. Assessing the level of student reflection from reflective journals. J Adv Nurs.1995;22:48–57.[PubMed]

43. Butani L, Blankenburg R, Long M. Stimulating reflective practice among your learners. Pediatrics.2013;131(2):204–206.[PubMed]

44. Kember D. Determining the level of reflective thinking from students' written journals using a coding scheme based on the work of Mezirow. International Journal of Lifelong Education.1999;18(1):18–30.

45. Kember D, Leung DYP, Jones A, et al. Development of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking. Assess Eval High Educ.2000;25(4):381–95.

46. Lethbridge K, Andrusyszyn M-A, Iwasiw C, Laschinger HKS, Fernando R. Assessing the psychometric properties of Kember and Leung’s Reflection Questionnaire. Assess Eval High Educ.2013;38(3):303–325.

47. Wang W. Students’ perceptions of rubric-referenced peer feedback on EFL writing: a longitudinal inquiry. Assessing Writing.2014;19(0):80–96.

48. Wang X, Su Y, Cheung S, Wong E, Kwong T. An exploration of Biggs' constructive alignment in course design and its impact on students' learning approaches. Assess Eval High Educ.2013;38(4):477–491.

49. Accreditation. ACPE: Accreditation Standards and Key Elements for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree. Released Feb. 2, 2015. Accessed March 25, 2015;

50. Boud D, Walker D. Promoting reflection in professional courses: the challenge of context. Stud High Educ.1998;23(2):191–206.

51. Lynch J. Reflective practice and learning styles with international students. The Higher Education Academy; Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network: Enhancing Series: Internationalisation. Vol Nov. 2008; 2008:1–11.

52. Boud D, Falchikov N. Aligning assessment with long-term learning. Assess Eval High Educ.2006;31(4):399–413.

53. Carr S, Carmody D. Experiential learning in women's health: medical student reflections. Med Educ.2006;40:468–774.[PubMed]

54. Croke E. The use of structured reflective journal questions to promote fundamental development of clinical decision-making abilities of the first semester nursing student. Contemp Nurse.2004;17(1):125–136.[PubMed]

55. Driessen EW, Van Tartwijk J, Vermunt JD, Van der Vleuten CPM. Use of portfolios in early undergraduate medical training. Med Teach.2003;25(1):18–23.[PubMed]

56. Driessen EW, Van Tartwijk J, Overeem K, Vermunt JD, Van Der Vleuten CPM. Conditions for successful reflective use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education. Med Educ.2005;39(12):1230–1235.[PubMed]

57. Duke S, Appleton J. The use of reflection in a palliative care programme: a quantitative study of the development of reflective skills over an academic year. J Adv Nurs.2000;32(6):1557–1568.[PubMed]

58. Francis D, Owens J, Tollefson J. 'It comes together at the end': the impact of a one-year subject in nursing inquiry on philosophies of nursing. Nursing Inquiry.1998;5(4):268–278.[PubMed]

59. Goodyear HM, Bindal T, Wall D. How useful are structured electronic portfolio templates to encourage reflective practice? Med Teach.2013;35(1):71–73.[PubMed]

60. Gordon J. Assessing students' personal and professional development using portfolios and interviews. Med Educ.2003;37(4):335–340.[PubMed]

61. Greaves JD, Gupta SK. Portfolios can assist reflective practice and guide learning. Curr Anaesth Crit Care.2003;14(4):173–177.

62. Hanson K, Alexander S. The influence of technology on reflective learning in dental hygiene education. J Dent Educ.2010;74(6):644–653.[PubMed]

63. Hill K, Hamilton J. Using videoed simulated clinical interaction to promote communication skills and reflective practice for overseas-born medical students. Commun Med.2013;10(1):1–11.[PubMed]

64. Hulsman RL, Harmsen AB, Fabriek M. Reflective teaching of medical communication skills with DiViDU: Assessing the level of student reflection on recorded consultations with simulated patients. Patient Educ Couns.2009;74(2):142–149.[PubMed]

65. Kitchen M. Junior doctors' guide to portfolio learning and building. Clin Teach.2012;9(5):308–311.[PubMed]

66. Koh YH, Wong ML, Lee JJ-M. Medical students’ reflective writing about a task-based learning experience on public health communication. Med Teach.2014;36(2):121–129.[PubMed]

67. Koole S, Dornan T, Aper L, et al. Using video cases to assess student reflection: development and validation of an instrument. BMC Med Educ.2012;12(22):1–8.[PMC free article][PubMed]

68. Maloney S, Tai JHM, Lo K, Molloy E, Ilic D. Honesty in critically reflective essays: an analysis of student practice. Adv Health Sci Educ.2012:1–10.[PubMed]

69. Mamede S, Schmidt HG. The structure of reflective in medicine. Med Educ.2004;38(12):1302–1308.[PubMed]

70. Mann K, Gordon J, MacLeod A. Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: a systematic review. Adv Health Sci Educ.2009;14(4):595–621.[PubMed]

71. Mantzoukas S, Jasper MA. Reflective practice and daily ward reality: a covert power game. J Clin Nurs.2004;13(8):925–933.[PubMed]

72. Mathers NJ, Challis MC, Howe AC, Field NJ. Portfolios in continuing medical education – effective and efficient? Med Educ.1999;33(7):521–530.[PubMed]

73. McKay FH, Dunn M. Student reflections in a first year public health and health promotion unit. Reflective Practice.2015:1–12.

74. McKenna V, Connolly C, Hodgins M. Usefulness of a competency-based reflective portfolio for student learning on a masters health promotion programme. Health Educ J.2011;70(2):170–175.

75. McNeill H, Brown JM, Shaw NJ. First year specialist trainees' engagement with reflective practice in the e-portfolio. Adv in Health Sci Educ.2010;15(4):547–558.[PubMed]

76. Monaghan SF, Blakely AM, Richardson PJ, Miner TJ, Cioffi WG, Harrington DT. The reflective statement: a new tool to assess resident learning. J Surg Res.2012;178(2):618–622.[PMC free article][PubMed]

77. Niemi PM. Medical students' professional identity: self-reflection during the preclinical years. Med Educ.1997;31(6):408–415.[PubMed]

78. Plack MM, Driscol M, Marquez M. Cuppernull Lea. Assessing reflective writing on a pediatric clerkship by using a modified Bloom's Taxonomy. Ambul Pediatr.2007;7(4):285–291.[PubMed]

79. Ramli A, Ruslan AS, Sukiman NS. Reflection of physiotherapy students in clinical placement: a qualitative study. Sains Malaysiana.2012;41(6):787–793.

80. Richardson G, Maltby H. Reflection-on-practice: enhancing student learning. J Adv Nurs.1995;22:235–242.[PubMed]

81. Roche VF, Limpach AL. A collaborative and reflective academic advanced pharmacy practice experience. Am J Pharm Educ.2011;75(6) Article 120. [PMC free article][PubMed]

82. Saltman DC, Tavabie A, Kidd MR. The use of reflective and reasoned portfolios by doctors. J Eval Clin Pract.2012;18(1):182–185.[PubMed]

83. Schumann W, Moxley DP, Vanderwill W. Integrating service and reflection in the professional development of pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004 2004;68(1-5):LL1-LL8.

84. Sendall MC, Domocol ML. Journalling and public health education: Thinking about reflecting. Educ and Train.2013;55(1):52–68.

85. Snadden D, Thomas ML. Portfolio learning in general practice vocational training – does it work? Med Educ.1998;32(4):401–406.[PubMed]

86. Tsang AKL, Walsh LJ. Oral health students' perceptions of clinical reflective learning – relevance to their development as evolving professionals. Eur J Dent Educ.2010;14(2):99–105.[PubMed]

87. Williams RM, Wessel J. Reflective journal writing to obtain student feedback about their learning during the study of chronic musculoskeletal conditions. J Allied Health.2004;33(1):17–23.[PubMed]

88. Kanthan R, Senger J-L. An appraisal of students' awareness of “self-reflection” in a first-year pathology course of undergraduate medical/dental education. BMC Med Educ.2011;11(1):67.[PMC free article][PubMed]

89. Plack MM, Greenberg L. The reflective practitioner: reaching for excellence in practice. Pediatrics.2005;116(6):1546–1552.[PubMed]

90. Wald HS, Reis SP, Borkan JM. Reflection rubric development: evaluating medical students' reflective writing. Med Educ.2009;43(11):1110–1111.[PubMed]

91. Wald HS, Borkan JM, Taylor JS. Fostering and evaluating reflective capacity in medical education: developing the REFLECT rubric for assessing reflective writing. Acad Med.2012;87(1):41–46.[PubMed]

92. Kleinheksel AJ. Transformative learning through virtual patient simulations: predicting critical student reflections. Clinical Simulation in Nursing.2014;10(6):e301–e8.

93. Wallace D, Boller J. New nurse practitioner competencies: skill development and reflective writing rubrics. J Nurs Pract.2014;10(7):1–6.

94. Padden ML. A pilot study to determine the validity and reliability of the level of reflection-on-action assessment. J Nurs Educ.2013;52(7):410–415.[PubMed]

95. Osman G, Koh JHL. Understanding management students' reflective practice through blogging. Int High Educ.2013;16(0):23–31.

96. Thorsen CA, DeVore S. Analyzing reflection on/for action: a new approach. Reflective Practice.2013;14(1):88–103.

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