Broadcast Commentary And Critical Writing Essay

UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC PROGRAMME

1. REVISED UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMME IN MASS COMMUNICATION

STRESS AREASCODES
Foundational Courses0
Writing Courses1
Broadcast Courses2
Print Courses3
Persuasion Courses4
Media Attachment5
Photojournalism and Film6
Research8
Project9

FOUR-YEAR STANDARD UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMME

FIRST YEAR

FIRSTSEMESTER

Course CodeCourse titleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 101Introduction to Mass Communication4
MAC 103History of the Nigerian Mass Media2
MAC 111Elements of Journalistic Style2

General Studies Courses

GSP 101Communication in English I2
GSP 111The Use of Library & Study Skills2
GSP 207Logic Philosophy & Human Existence2

Required Ancillary Courses

PHI  101Introduction to Philosophy I2
POL 114Nigerian Legal System I2

Electives:Choose one of the following courses:

ELS  104Introduction to Nigerian Literature I2
ELS  141Introduction to Fiction3
FRE  101Elementary French I2
HIS  103Major World Civilizations3
HIS  111Nigeria from 1500 to 18002
HIS  121History of Africa from 1500 – 1800 A.D.3
Total20/21

SECOND SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 102African Communication Systems4
MAC 112Writing for the Mass Media2
MAC 132Typesetting2

General Studies Courses

GSP 102Communication in English II2
GSP 208Nigerian Peoples & Culture

Ancillary Courses

PHI  102Introduction to Philosophy II2
POL 115Nigerian Legal System II2

Electives:Choose one of the following courses:

ELS  105Introduction to Nigerian Literature II2
ELS  121Basic English Grammar and Composition3
FRE  102Elementary French II2
HIS   122History of West Africa from 1500 A.D. to the Present2
HIS   131Europe to the Age of Revolutions2
THA 132Basic Communication Theory3
Total18/19

SECOND YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 201Theories of Mass Communication2
MAC 203Reporting2
MAC 205Graphics of Mass Communication2
MAC 211Critical and Review Writing2
MAC 221Announcing and Performance2
MAC 241Principles of Public Relations2
MAC 261Introduction to Film2

General Studies Courses       

GSP 105Natural Science I2
GSP 201Peace and Conflict Resolution I2

Required Ancillary Course

COS 101Introduction to Computer Science2

Electives:Choose one of the following courses:

MAC 243Marketing Foundations for Advertising and Public Relations2
POL  101Introduction to Political Science I2
POL  211Nigerian Politics and Government I2
SOC 101Introduction to Sociology I2
Total22

SECOND SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 202Media and Society2
MAC 204Information and Communication Technologies2
MAC 212News Writing3
MAC 222Principles of Broadcasting2
MAC 242Principles of Advertising2
MAC 252Media Attachment2

General Studies Courses

GSP 106Natural Science II2
GSP 202Peace and Conflict Resolution II2

Electives:Choose two of the following courses:

MAC 244Fundamentals of Media Relations2
POL  102Introduction to Political Science II2
POL  212Nigerian Politics and Government II2
PSY  103Determinants of Behaviour2
SOC 102Introduction to Sociology II2
SOC 251Social Changes and Social Problems3
Total21/22

THIRD YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 301Development Journalism2
MAC 311Feature and Interpretative Writing3
MAC 313Magazine Article Writing3
MAC 321Radio/TV Programme Writing and Production2
MAC 331News Editing2
MAC 333Fundamentals of Book Publishing2
MAC 361Photojournalism2

Required Ancillary Course

CED 341Introduction to Entrepreneurship2

Electives:Choose two of the following courses:

MAC 323Public Affairs Broadcasting2
MAC 341Financial Relations2
MAC 343Advertising Creative Strategies and Tactics2
MAC 345Consumer Affairs2
Total22

SECOND SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 302Specialised Reporting2
MAC 312Editorial Writing2
MAC 322Broadcast Programming2
MAC 332Newspaper Production2
MAC 334Magazine Production2
MAC 352Media Attachment2
MAC 382Introduction to Mass Communication Research2
MAC 384Advertising and Public Relations Research2

Required Ancillary Courses

COS  304Computer Applications3
CED  342Business Development and Management2

Electives:Choose one of the following courses:

MAC 314Broadcast Commentary and Critical Writing2
MAC 342Community Relations2
Total23

FOURTH YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 401Mass Communication Law and Ethics2
MAC 403International Communication2
MAC 421Advanced Radio/TV Production2
MAC 431Advanced Newspaper Production2
MAC 433Advanced Magazine Production2
MAC 435Print Seminar2
MAC 441Advanced Public Relations2

Electives:Choose two of the following courses:

MAC 423Station Management and Operations2
MAC 425International Broadcasting2
MAC 443International Public Relations2
MAC 445Organisation and Management of Advertising and Public Relations Agencies2
Total18

SECOND SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 402Media Management2
MAC 422Broadcast Seminar2
MAC 442Advanced Advertising2
MAC 462Documentary Film Production2
MAC 490Project6

Electives:Choose two of the following courses:

MAC 412Film Criticism2
MAC 424Educational Broadcasting2
MAC 444Special Topics in Advertising & Public Relations2
MAC 446Multinational Advertising2
Total18

THREE-YEAR STANDARD UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMME

FIRST YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 101Introduction to Mass Communication4
MAC 103History of the Nigerian Mass Media2
MAC 111Elements of Journalistic Style2
MAC 203Reporting2
General Studies Courses
GSP 101Communication in English I2
GSP 105Natural Science I2
GSP 111The Use of Library & Study Skills2
GSP 201Peace and Conflict Resolution I2
GSP 207Logic Philosophy & Human Existence2
Required Ancillary Courses
PHI  101Introduction to Philosophy     I2
POL 114Nigerian Legal System I2
Total24

SECOND SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse Title Units
Major Courses
MAC 102African Communication Systems4
MAC 132Typesetting2
MAC 202Media and Society2
MAC 212News Writing3
General Studies Courses
GSP  102Communication in English II2
GSP  106Natural Science II2
GSP  202Peace and Conflict Resolution II2
GSP  208Nigerian Peoples and Culture2
Required Ancillary Courses
PHI  102Introduction to Philosophy II2
POL 115Nigeria Legal System II2
Total23

SECOND YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 201Theories of Mass Communication2
MAC 205Graphics of Mass Communication2
MAC 221Announcing and Performance2
MAC 241Principles of Public Relations2
MAC 311Feature and Interpretative Writing3
MAC 313Magazine Article Writing3
MAC 321Radio/TV Programme Writing and Production2
MAC 331News Editing2
Required Ancillary Courses
COS  101Introduction to Computer Science2
CED  341Introduction to Entrepreneurship2
Total22

SECOND SEMESTER

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 222Principles of Broadcasting2
MAC 242Principles of Advertising2
MAC 252Media Attachment2
MAC 302Specialised Reporting2
MAC 322Broadcast Programming2
MAC 332Newspaper Production2
MAC 334Magazine Production2
MAC 382Introduction to Mass Communication Research2
MAC 384Advertising and Public Relations Research2
Required Ancillary Courses
COS 304Computer Applications3
CED 342Business Development and Management2
Total23

THIRD YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

CourseCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 211Critical and Review Writing2
MAC 333Fundamentals of Book Publishing2
MAC 361Photojournalism2
MAC 401Mass Communication Law and Ethics2
MAC 403International Communication2
MAC 421Advanced Radio/TV Production2
MAC 431Advanced Newspaper Production2
MAC 433Advanced Magazine Production2
MAC 435Print Seminar2
MAC 441Advanced Public Relations2
Electives:Choose one of the following courses:
MAC 423Station Management and Operations2
MAC 425International Broadcasting2
MAC 443International Public Relations2
MAC 445Organisation and Management of Advertising and Public Relations Agencies2
Total22

SECOND SEMESTER

CourseCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 204Information and Communication Technologies2
MAC 312Editorial Writing2
MAC 402Media Management2
MAC 422Broadcast Seminar2
MAC 442Advanced Advertising2
MAC 462Documentary Film Production2
MAC 490Project6
Electives:Choose one of the following courses:
MAC 412Film Criticism2
MAC 424Educational Broadcasting2
MAC 444Special Topics in Advertising and Public Relations2
MAC 446Multinational Advertising2
Total20

2. SANDWICH DEGREE PROGRAMME IN MASS COMMUNICATION

The sandwich degree programme is part of that continuing drive to provide relevant personnel for the media industry and allied fields.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the sandwich degree programme in Mass Communication are:

  1. to afford workers in various fields, especially the media industry, the opportunity to gain undergraduate training in communication skills during vacation periods in the University academic calendar,
  2. to produce graduates who would work for and then manage media institutions, and
  3. to expose students to a broad liberal education within the university’s philosophy of restoring the dignity of man.

SCOPE

The department is offering six-long vacation and five-long vacation first degree programmes in Mass Communication. This curriculum is designed to enable students to gain expertise in various areas of the mass media and grounding in liberal education through exposure to courses in such areas as General Studies, major courses, required ancillary and elective courses. Recommended areas of study for the elective courses include English, History, Languages, Philosophy and Political Science.

The professional courses in Mass Communication provide the student with an understanding of the principles of mass communication and an opportunity to develop techniques in written and audio-visual communication. The required and elective courses give the student the essential background knowledge which he/she requires for effective communication in modern society. The department provides practical training in newspaper and magazine reporting, editing and publishing as well as in broadcasting.

ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

To qualify for admission into the six-long vacation programme, candidates are required to have, at least, five credit level passes in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (S.S.C.E.) or its equivalent at two sittings. These should include English Language, Literature in English and an approved science subject. A pass in Mathematics is also required.

Also qualified are candidates who possess the Higher School Certificate/General Certificate of Education (G.C.E.) A’ levels with pass in two Arts subjects. In addition, these candidates should have credit passes in English Language, Literature in English and an approved science subject plus a pass in Mathematics in the S.S.C.E. or its equivalent.

To qualify for admission into the five-long vacation programme, candidates should possess the Diploma in Mass Communication of the University of Nigeria or the Ordinary National Diploma (O.N.D.) in Mass Communication from any recognised institution with at least a merit or lower credit grade. Such candidates should also have, at least, four credit level passes including English Language, Literature in English and an approved science subject plus a pass in Mathematics in the S.S.C.E. or its equivalent.

Candidates with a pass grade in their Diploma will be required to do the six-long vacation programme.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Same as in regular undergraduate programme.

STRESS AREAS                                   CODES

Same as in regular undergraduate programme.

SIX-LONG VACATION SANDWICH DEGREE PROGRAMME

FIRST LONG VACATION

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 101Introduction to Mass Communication4
MAC 102African Communication Systems4
MAC 103History of the Nigerian Mass Media2
MAC 111Elements of Journalistic Style2
MAC 132Typesetting2
General Studies Courses
GSP 101Communication in English I2
GSP 111The Use of Library & Study Skills2
GSP 201Peace and Conflict Resolution I2
GSP 207Logic Philosophy & Human Existence2
Required Ancillary Courses
PHI  101Introduction to Philosophy I2
POL 114Nigerian Legal System I2
Electives: Choose one of the following courses:
ELS  104Introduction to Nigerian Literature2
ELS  141Introduction to Fiction3
FRE  101Elementary French I2
HIS  103Major World Civilizations3
HIS  111Nigeria from 1500 to 18002
HIS  121History of Africa from 1500 – 1800 A.D.3
Total28/29

SECOND LONG VACATION

Course Code Course TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 112Writing for the Mass Media2
MAC 201Theories of Mass Communication2
MAC 203Reporting2
MAC 205Graphics of Mass Communication2
MAC 211Critical and Review Writing2
MAC 212News Writing3
MAC 222Principles of Broadcasting2
General Studies Courses
GSP 102Communication in English II2
GSP 202Peace and Conflict Resolution II2
GSP 208Nigerian Peoples & Culture2
Required Ancillary Courses
PHI  102Introduction to Philosophy II2
POL 115Nigerian Legal System II2
Electives: Choose one of the following Courses
MAC 243Marketing Foundations for Advertising and Public Relations2
POL  101Introduction to Political Science I2
POL  211Nigerian Politics and Government I2
Total27

 THIRD LONG VACATION

Course Code Course TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 112Writing for the Mass Media2
MAC 201Theories of Mass Communication2
MAC 203Reporting2
MAC 205Graphics of Mass Communication2
MAC 211Critical and Review Writing2
MAC 212News Writing3
MAC 222Principles of Broadcasting2
General Studies Courses
GSP 102Communication in English II2
GSP 202Peace and Conflict Resolution II2
GSP 208Nigerian Peoples & Culture2
Required Ancillary Courses
PHI  102Introduction to Philosophy II2
POL 115Nigerian Legal System II2
Electives: Choose one of the following Courses
MAC 243Marketing Foundations for Advertising and Public Relations2
POL  101Introduction to Political Science I2
POL  211Nigerian Politics and Government I2
Total27

 FOURTH LONG VACATION

Course Code Course TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 112Writing for the Mass Media2
MAC 201Theories of Mass Communication2
MAC 203Reporting2
MAC 205Graphics of Mass Communication2
MAC 211Critical and Review Writing2
MAC 212News Writing3
MAC 222Principles of Broadcasting2
General Studies Courses
GSP 102Communication in English II2
GSP 202Peace and Conflict Resolution II2
GSP 208Nigerian Peoples & Culture2
Required Ancillary Courses
PHI  102Introduction to Philosophy II2
POL 115Nigerian Legal System II2
Electives: Choose one of the following Courses
MAC 243Marketing Foundations for Advertising and Public Relations2
POL  101Introduction to Political Science I2
POL  211Nigerian Politics and Government I2
Total27

FIFTH LONG VACATION

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 312Editorial Writing2
MAC 313Magazine Article Writing3
MAC 332Newspaper Production2
MAC 334Magazine Production2
MAC 352Media Attachment2
MAC 384Advertising and Public Relations Research2
MAC 401Mass Communication Law and Ethics2
MAC 402Media Management2
MAC 403International Communication2
Electives: Choose three of the following courses:
MAC 412Film Criticism2
MAC 423Station Management and Operations2
MAC 424Educational Broadcasting2
MAC 425International Broadcasting2
MAC 443International Public Relations2
Total25

SIXTH LONG VACATION

Course CodeCourse TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 421Advanced Radio/TV Production2
MAC 422Broadcast Seminar2
MAC 431Advanced Newspaper Production2
MAC 433Advanced Magazine Production2
MAC 435Print Seminar2
MAC 441Advanced Public Relations2
MAC 442Advanced Advertising2
MAC 462Documentary Film Production2
MAC 490Project6
Electives: Choose one of the following courses:
MAC 444Special Topics in Advertising and Public Relations2
MAC 445Organisation and Management of Advertising and Public Relations Agencies2
MAC 446Multinational Advertising2
Total24

FIVE-LONG VACATION SANDWICH DEGREE PROGRAMME

FIRST LONG VACATION

Course Code Course TitleUnits
Major Courses
MAC 101Introduction to Mass Communication4
MAC 102African Communication Systems4
MAC 103History of the Nigerian Mass Media2
MAC 111Elements of Journalistic Style2
MAC 132Typesetting2
MAC 203Reporting2
General Studies Courses
GSP 101Communication in English I2
GSP 111The Use of Library & Study Skills2
GSP 201Peace and Conflict Resolution I2
GSP 207Logic Philosophy & Human Existence2

Critical Concepts

Criticism and Critical Analysis

“Critical” in the sense in which we use the term here is not synonymous with “fault-finding.”  The essay we are going to examine is an excellent piece of work, it is “critical analysis” that reveals how and why that is.   The term “criticism” comes from the Greek word krinein, which means “to pick.”  (There is a brand of Greek cuisine available in the supermarkets that carries this name.  The makers are saying that their product is “select” – the “pick of the crop,” as it were.)  

What critical examination picks out is what is relevant to notice if we want to understand how something works

Thus we can have critical analysis of a tractor or a frog’s heart.  In this case we are interested in noticing what the various parts are and how they operate together to get certain functions done.  In the case of biology, critical analysis has a special name:  it’s known as “anatomy and physiology,” and skill in doing and following reports of this is an essential part of the training of any physician or researcher.

We can have critical analysis of a court opinion.  This is the heart of what is known as “briefing a case,” and anyone who goes to law school either learns how to relish doing this, or decides to pursue a different profession.  The goal is to understand how the court reached its conclusions in a particular case, in order to decide what degree of authority this opinion will have for a court faced with the particular case we are now dealing with.  We need to assess which facts played what role, as premises in the judge’s argument.  We need to understand exactly how the facts of our case are alike and different from those ruled upon in the opinion we are reading.  And we need to judge how relevant these similarities and differences are in light of the established principles relied on in the opinion we are trying to understand.

Consider for a moment some of the possible results of our critical examination of a particular judicial opinion.

  • We may find a brilliantly argued opinion that is nevertheless not on point with the facts of the case we are representing a client in.  The decision reached is thus not a precedent that either party can effectively use to persuade the judge in the present case to decide it in one way or the other.  Still, we will need to be prepared to show the judge why this is so if the other side attempts to exploit it for leverage on its behalf.

  • We may find a shabbily argued opinion that is quite close, in its facts, to the case in which we are active.  If the judge's decision in this prior case favors the opponent in our own, we must be prepared to show the judge where his predecessor got off the track.  If it favors our client, we will not want to rely very heavily upon it.

  • We may find a well-argued opinion that is directly on point with respect to the facts of our case.  If the precedent favors our client, we will of course want to rely on it in our arguments before the court and (before that) with opposing counsel (in seeking a favorable out-of-court settlement).  But if it favors the opponent, we need to advise our client that the best course may be to fold on the best terms of settlement we can find.

The point that needs stressing here is that allof these possibilities depend on our critical skills.  Criticism is not just fault-finding, because it is what we had to rely on in order to discover the "golden key" -- that perfect precedent that's a winner for us.  (And even when what we turn up is a golden key for the opponent, that knowledge is essential for us to do our best by our client.) 

We can have critical examination (often quite admiring) of the execution of a football play or of the coaching strategy at work in the final minutes of a basketball game.  This is what we know as “sports commentary,” but it’s nothing other than a particular version of critical analysis.  A good commentator will know, from experience, what moves to notice, and what questions to pursue once he notices them in action.  He knows what sorts of things work – what the various standard offensive and defensive strategies are, when they are called for and when not, and what has to go off for them to succeed in their aims.  In live broadcast, what often predominates is a running commentary (“play-by-play”), but in more retrospective and searching analysis — the sort of thing even the most adept commentator can put together on the basis of watching replays, thinking through implications, and sorting things out — the commentator arrives at a comprehensive vision, which takes on a modular character.  The commentator shows us one thing, shows us another, and explains (say) how these two together made for something else, the point of which was to outflank X, but which failed because of such and such (as we can see by noticing this and that), etc.  Though he may deliver his analysis orally, what he is delivering is nothing more or less than an expository/argumentative essay — a critical analysis.

We can bring critical attention to bear on just about any object we care to subject it to.  Of course, depending on the nature of the object, and the purposes of our interest in it, the kinds of things it makes sense to select for notice will be different.  In this course, we will primarily be interested in doing critical analysis of works of literature -- this or that fictional narrative, dramatic, or lyric work.  Often, the medium in which we will be carrying this out will be some form of expository/argumentative essay.  Since we will be interested in improving our writing, we will find it useful from time to time to bring critical attention to bear on this kind of object as well.

You can get an initial idea of what each of these kinds of critical examination amounts to by working through the explication of a sample student essay on a literary work.

That discussion is designed to highlight as well the distinction between two importantly different forms of critical examination:  explication and critical analysis.

It also drives home the point that what we are here calling criticism is not to be confused with "fault-finding"!

  Suggestions are welcome.  Please send your comments to lyman@ksu.edu .

      Contents copyright © 2000 by Lyman A. Baker. 

  This page last updated ,( January /),( .

 

 

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