Appendix Latex Bibliography

Your LaTeX file needs to include
  • a reference to a label in your BibTeX file whenever you want to cite an item in the file
  • a reference to the bibliography style file you want to use, which determines how the references you cite are formatted in the bibliography of your document (and possibly a LaTeX style file associated with the bibliography style)
  • a LaTeX command to generate the bibliography at the point in your document where you want it to appear.

Example using

Here is an example using the bibliography style , which produces citations in "author (year)" format. This file is available on this page (which has instructions on where to put the file once you get it). The lines related to BibTeX are highlighed. It requires the LaTeX style file to produce citations in the right style in the text (matching the format of the references produced by ). You probably have this file already (assuming you have some implementation of TeX on your computer). If you don't, you can get it on this CTAN page. Hover over orangetext to see explanations.

When you run the LaTeX file through LaTeX and BibTeX (instructions below), you'll get output for the body of the document that looks roughly like this:

This document illustrates the use of BibTeX. You may want to refer to Arrow et al. (1961) or Aliprantis and Border (1994) or Maskin (1985). Or you may want to cite a specific page in a reference, like this: see Maskin (1985, p. 199). Or perhaps you want to cite more than one paper by Maskin: Maskin (1985, 1999). Or you want to make a parenthetical reference to one or more articles, in which case the \citealt command omits the parentheses around the year (Arrow et al. 1961).
A few more options for the command are available. Here they are:
Jones et al. (1990)
Jones, Baker, and Smith (1990)
(Jones et al. 1990)
(Jones, Baker, and Smith 1990)
(Jones et al., 1990, p. 99)
(e.g. Jones et al., 1990)
(e.g. Jones et al., 1990, p. 99)
Jones et al.
Jones, Baker, and Smith
*Jones et al.'s (1990)

*Assumes \citeapos is defined in your style or document like this:

(Thanks to Christopher M. Duncombe Rae for pointing out this simple way of generating a possessive citation.)

The list of references will look like this:

Aliprantis, Charalambos D. and Kim C. Border (1994), Infinite Dimensional Analysis. Springer, Berlin.

Arrow, Kenneth J., Leonid Hurwicz, and Hirofumi Uzawa (1961), "Constraint qualifications in maximization problems." Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 8, 175–191.

Maskin, Eric S. (1985), "The theory of implementation in Nash equilibrium: a survey." In Social Goals and Social Organization (Leonid Hurwicz, David Schmeidler, and Hugo Sonnenschein, eds.), 173–204, Cambridge University Press.

Maskin, Eric S. (1999), "Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality." Review of Economic Studies, 66, 23–38.

Example using

Here is an example using the bibliography style , which in included in many LaTeX systems.

When you run the LaTeX file through LaTeX and BibTeX (instructions below), you'll get output for the body of the document that differs from the output when you use only in that the names of all three authors of Arrow, Hurwicz, and Uzawa (1961) are listed in the first citation to that work, although not in the second, parenthetical, citation.

The list of references differs more significantly from the list produced by : only authors' initials, not their full first names, are included, and "&" rather than "and" is used as a separator; numbers in page ranges are separated by hyphens, rather than the conventional en-dashes. Precisely, the list of references produced by looks like this:

Aliprantis, C. D. & K. C. Border (1994), Infinite Dimensional Analysis. Berlin: Springer.

Arrow, K. J., Hurwicz, L., & Uzawa, H. (1961), Constraint qualifications in maximization problems. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 8, 175-191.

Maskin, E. S. (1985), The theory of implementation in Nash equilibrium: a survey. In L. Hurwicz, D. Schmeidler, & H. Sonnenschein (Eds.), Social Goals and Social Organization (p. 173-204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maskin, Eric S. (1999), Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality. Review of Economic Studies, 66, 23-38.

Other bibliography styles for author-year citations

A family of styles that produce author-year citations is available on this page.

Creating your own bibliography style

A BibTeX style file is plain text, which in principle you can edit. However, the language used is arcane, and changes that are more than trivial are tricky. A better way to proceed is to create a new style file from scratch, using the custom-bib package (that's how I created ). You run TeX on a file, which asks you a long list of questions about the features of the style you would like. You'll probably not be completely clear about your preferred answers to all the questions on your first attempt, but two or three runs should produce a format to your liking.

Multiple bibliographies?

If you’re thinking of multiple bibliographies tied to some part of your document (such as the chapters within the document), please see bibliographies per chapter.

For more than one bibliography, there are three options.

The multibbl package offers a very simple interface: you use a command to define a bibliography “tag”. The package redefines the other bibliography commands so that each time you use any one of them, you give it the tag for the bibliography where you want the citations to appear. The command itself also takes a further extra argument that says what title to use for the resulting section or chapter (i.e., it patches and in a babel-safe way). So one might write:

\usepackage{multibbl} \newbibliography{bk} \bibliographystyle{bk}{alpha} \newbibliography{art} \bibliographystyle{art}{plain} ... \cite[pp.~23--25]{bk}{milne:pooh-corner} ... \cite{art}{einstein:1905} ... \bibliography{bk}{book-bib}{References to books} \bibliography{art}{art-bib}{References to articles}
(Note that the optional argument of appears before the new tag argument, and that the commands may list more than one file — indeed all commands may list the same set of files.)

The data goes into files whose names are ‹tag-name.aux, so you will need to run

bibtex bk bibtex art
after the first run of LaTeX, to get the citations in the correct place.

The multibib package allows you to define a series of “additional topics”, each of which comes with its own series of bibliography commands. So one might write:

\usepackage{multibib} \newcites{bk,art}% {References from books,% References from articles} \bibliographystylebk{alpha} \bibliographystyleart{plain} ... \citebk[pp.~23--25]{milne:pooh-corner} ... \citeart{einstein:1905} ... \bibliographybk{book-bib} \bibliographyart{art-bib}
Again, as for multibbl, any command may scan any list of files.

BibTeX processing with multibib is much like that with multibbl; with the above example, one needs:

bibtex bk bibtex art
Note that, unlike multibbl, multibib allows a simple, unmodified bibliography (as well as the “topic” ones).

The bibtopic package allows you separately to cite several different bibliographies. At the appropriate place in your document, you put a sequence of environments (each of which specifies a bibliography database to scan) to typeset the separate bibliographies. Thus, one might have a file diss.tex containing:

\usepackage{bibtopic} \bibliographystyle{alpha} ... \cite[pp.~23--25]{milne:pooh-corner} ... \cite{einstein:1905} ... \begin{btSect}{book-bib} \section{References from books} \btPrintCited \end{btSect} \begin{btSect}[plain]{art-bib} \section{References from articles} \btPrintCited \end{btSect}
Note the different way of specifying a bibliographystyle: if you want a different style for a particular bibliography, you may give it as an optional argument to the environment.

Processing with BibTeX, in this case, uses files whose names are derived from the name of the base document. So in this example you need to say:

bibtex diss1 bibtex diss2

There is also a command , which gives the rest of the content of the database (if nothing has been cited from the database, this is equivalent to LaTeX standard ).

However, the real difference from multibbl and multibib is that selection of what appears in each bibliography section is determined in bibtopic by what’s in the files.

An entirely different approach is taken by the splitbib package. You provide a environment, in the preamble of your document, for each category you want a separate citation list for. In each environment, you list the keys that you want listed in each category. The command (or, more precisely, the environment it uses) will sort the keys as requested. (Keys not mentioned in a appear in a “misc” category created in the sorting process.) A code example appears in the package documentation (a PDF file in the CTAN directory, which you can browse to, from the link, below).


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